Instrumentation

Control System


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In this lesson, we will discuss Control System.

  • Control systems are of two types.

  Open Loop Control System.

   Closed-Loop Control System.

Closed-Loop Control System

  • The closed-loop control system as the name indicates is a control system that has a closed loop.
  • In the closed-loop control system output of the system is compared with the desired signal or set point and an error signal is generated.
  • The closed-loop control system tries to minimize this error.
  •  A closed-loop control system is one in which an input forcing function is determined in part by the system response.
  • The measured response of a physical system is compared with the desired response.

Closed Loop Control System

  • The closed-loop control system diagram is shown in the above figure.
  • Here R is the reference signal or desired signal. This signal is compared with measured output (Feedback signal) that is output from the sensor or we can say the output signal.
  • by the result of this comparison, an error signal is generated this signal is shown by e, this error signal is then given to controller.
  • This error signal is also known as the actuating signal.
  • The controller output is given to the process or plant (Control valve, VFD).
  • After the control valve, a sensor or a motor (Feedback element)is used and their output is used as a feedback signal.
  • This feedback signal is then compared with setpoint and as stated above an error or actuating signal is generated.
  • So, a closed loop is formed here so it is called a closed-loop control system.

Open Loop Control System.

In an open-loop control system, no feedback signal is used and also no closed loop is formed.

Parts of a Closed Loop Control System

  • Controller (PID Controller).
  • Actuator.
  • Control Valve.
  • Sensor (or Transmitter).

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