In this section we will read about
- Current to pressure Converter (I/P Converter)
- Control Valve positioner or Pneumatic positioner
- Parts of a pneumatic control valve positioner
- Control Valve and its types
- Solenoid Valve
- Pneumatic Cylinder
- Butterfly Valve
- Globe Valve or pneumatic globe valve
- Parts of a Control Valve
- Pneumatic globe valve types
- Control Valve Characteristics
- Class of a control valve
- Pressure Transmitter
- pressure transmitter working principle
- Pin type pressure Transmitter
- Pressure Transmitter connections
- pressure transmitter signal checking
- Flow transmitter
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In this lesson, we will discuss Control System.
- Control systems are of two types.
Open Loop Control System.
Closed-Loop Control System.
Closed-Loop Control System
- The closed-loop control system as the name indicates is a control system that has a closed loop.
- In the closed-loop control system output of the system is compared with the desired signal or set point and an error signal is generated.
- The closed-loop control system tries to minimize this error.
- A closed-loop control system is one in which an input forcing function is determined in part by the system response.
- The measured response of a physical system is compared with the desired response.
- The closed-loop control system diagram is shown in the above figure.
- Here R is the reference signal or desired signal. This signal is compared with measured output (Feedback signal) that is output from the sensor or we can say the output signal.
- by the result of this comparison, an error signal is generated this signal is shown by e, this error signal is then given to controller.
- This error signal is also known as the actuating signal.
- The controller output is given to the process or plant (Control valve, VFD).
- After the control valve, a sensor or a motor (Feedback element)is used and their output is used as a feedback signal.
- This feedback signal is then compared with setpoint and as stated above an error or actuating signal is generated.
- So, a closed loop is formed here so it is called a closed-loop control system.
Open Loop Control System.
In an open-loop control system, no feedback signal is used and also no closed loop is formed.
Parts of a Closed Loop Control System
- Controller (PID Controller).
- Control Valve.
- Sensor (or Transmitter).
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